Samples of my research proposal and paper

Research Project Proposal

Will be propose to JICA at Tokyo, Japan and Jakarta, Indonesia. I will also asking JAXA at Tsukuba for satellite imagery supporting.

Mobile Geo-library; Environmental education based on local knowledge in lower education level

Fatwa Ramdani*

*Geoenviroment, Institute of Geography, Earth Science Department, Graduate School of Science, Tohoku University, JAPAN

ABSTRACT – Catastrophic and rapid changes in Indonesians peoples living environment during the last 10 years has been created more vulnerable not only for human but also socio-economic condition. The low level of geo-literacy has been made more complicated problems. Geo-literacy is way of spatial thinking, an ability to visualize and interpret location, relationship between location, movement, distance, direction, and landscape change through space, earth surface phenomena, to understand human-environment interaction and finally shape the way of thinking of high awareness of disaster. It is extremely necessary for Indonesians people. Geo-library is geo-spatial information system based on local knowledge to study the earth surface phenomena. This system is using web-based platform using open source software and application. The methodology based on mobile environmental education using one car facilitated with internet connection, 1 server, 6 notebook, global positioning system and lock satellite equipment. The car will be go around the region with highly vulnerable of human-natural disaster. The input data is spatial information based on local knowledge in changing environment surrounding their living environment. People with lower education will be interviewed, video will be recorded, they will identify location on screen map and satellite imagery, human activities, observations on the landscape, and other earth surface phenomena. All information is location based and to aim the purpose of this study, all local knowledge will be input to GIS system and building webGIS application that fully accessible, webGIS will be permits transfer of information to the other area. To ensure the data is secure, the user will be asked to register for access to webGIS. The data set will be created using open source Quantum GIS and PostGIS software. After all, people with lower education will be increasing their geo-literacy level to understand their dynamic environment. By providing mobile geo-library and building their geo-literacy based on their local knowledge and combine with scientific findings will be mitigate and anticipated this important issues. Their historical environmental knowledge will be documented in webGIS system, this system will be up to date every one year and accessible from anywhere. This information is highly valuable for their future. Furthermore, they will take action how to manage the environment using these tools and mitigate not only the natural disaster but also human-creation disaster. We propose this research project proposal to build mobile geo-library for environmental education based on local knowledge in lower education support by modern knowledge, not only for Indonesia but also for the future of the earth.

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Paper for Digital Globe and IEEE Data Fusion Competition, 2011

http://www.grss-ieee.org/2011-ieee-digitalglobe-data-fusion-contest/

MULTI-ANGLE WORLDVIEW-2 IMAGERY DATA FUSION FOR A BETTER URBAN VEGETATION EXTRACTION

Fatwa Ramdani

Geoenvironment, Institute of Geography, Earth Science Departmen, Graduate School of Science, Tohoku University, Japan

ABSTRACT

Urban vegetation extraction is important not only for ecological reason but also for socioeconomic function, due to this reason extraction of urban vegetation in high dense urban environment become more important to understand how is the quality of life of urban inhabitants. With only single-angular of satellite imagery, only provide us lower accuracy of urban vegetation extraction. WorldView-2 satellite could raise the accuracy using multi-angle imagery. We applied multi-angle data fusion and compare the result of urban vegetation extraction with single-angular of Rio de Jeneiro image, Brazil. The final results show us multi-angle images could give reasonable improvements especially for the urban vegetation extraction than using only single-angle.

Index Terms— Multi-angle, urban vegetation, extraction, WorldView-2

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Paper for Regional Conference of the International Geographical Union, 2013

”Traditional Wisdom and Modern Knowledge for the Earth’s Future”

http://www.igu-kyoto2013.org/

Extraction of Urban Vegetation in High Dense Urban Environment: Inhabitants Satisfaction of Urban Green Space

Fatwa Ramdani*

*Geoenvironment, Institute of Geography, Earth Science Department, Graduate School of Science, Tohoku University, JAPAN

ABSTRACT – Urban environment have function not only for ecological reason but also for socioeconomic function, due to this reason extraction of urban vegetation in high dense urban environment become more important to understand how do inhabitants satisfaction of urban green space. With medium resolution of satellite imagery the precision is very low, we used high resolution of WorldView-2 satellite to raise the accuracy. We chose Depok City in West Java as a case study area, analyzing all multispectral bands, and applied TCT algorithm to get vegetation density. The relationship between vegetation density and inhabitant’s satisfaction was calculated by statistical technique based on administrative boundary. We extracted five types of urban vegetation: city forest, park trees, street-side trees, residential trees, and river-side trees. The final result show that inhabitants are mostly satisfied with high density of urban vegetation in city forest and residential trees

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Paper for Natural Resources Management at IPB

“Jounal of Information Technology for NRM Vol.1 No. 2”

QUANTUM GIS 1.5.0 TETHYS IN HUMAN-ENVIRONMENT INTERACTION: A GEOGRAPHYCAL STUDY IN OIL PALM EXPANSION

Fatwa Ramdani1

1 Geo-environment, Institute of Geography, Earth Science, Graduate School of Science, Tohoku University, Japan

ABSTRACT

Optimalization of opensource software like Quantum GIS 1.5.0 Tethys in spatial analysis to identify spatial characteristics polygons, and the relationship between agents in spatial behavior, to define the agents and show on carthographic rules of oil palm expansion pattern. To understand the process of land use changes to oil palm plantation from others land use with three multi-agents (Multi-national Company, government, and small-holder). The aim of this paper is to describe a geographical method to define the agents, study case in Riau province, where the process of oil palm expansion activity highly recorded. The parameters are, firstly; enviromental paramaters: ground water condition, flood event, and pollution. Secondly; characteristics of plantation: amount of land bank, production capacity, plantation pattern, manufacture. Thirdly; socio-economic parameteres: policy, market demands, rate expansion, employee livelihood, job opportunity, and income. The benefit using opensource software are lowcost, easly to convert and doing geospatial analysis (union, clip, dissolve, etc), export to .JPG format file and/or PDF, and very friendly user interface,  make it easier to use even for a new comer in GIS. Management in environment and analysis in human-environment interaction become much more easier than before.

Keywords: quantum gis 1.5.0 tethys, human-environment interaction, multi-agents, geographical study, oil palm plantation

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Paper for Geographical Conference at Tohoku University, Sendai, JAPAN on November 7th, 2010

click this link for details http://5thcon.geographers.asia/

AGENTS TYPOLOGY OF OIL PALM PLANTATION; A GEOGRAPHYCAL ANALYSIS, STUDY CASE RIAU PROVINCE, INDONESIA

Fatwa Ramdani1

1 Geo-environment, Institute of Geography, Earth Science, Graduate School of Science, Tohoku University, Japan

ABSTRACT

Typologyis the study of types, specifically in this study, the classification of characteristics to oil palm plantation based on geographical analysis. To understand the process of land use changes to oil palm plantation from others land use with three multi-agents (Multi-national Company, government, and small-holder). The aim of this paper is to describe a geographical method to define the agents typology, study case in Riau province, where the process of oil palm expansion activity highly recorded. The parameters are, firstly; enviromental paramaters: ground water condition, flood event, and pollution. Secondly; characteristics of plantation: amount of land bank, production capacity, plantation pattern, manufacture. Thirdly; socio-economic parameteres: policy, market demands, rate expansion, employee, livelihood, job opportunity, and income.

Keywords: multi-agents, typology, geographical analysis, oil palm plantation

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My New Paper for Temu Ilmiah PPI Jepang. Natural Science Session. Nagoya, August 7, 2010

Lecturing on Satellite Imagery Processing and GIS based on Internet and Opensource Software

Fatwa Ramdani1

1Geo-environment, Institute of Geography, Graduate School of Science, Tohoku University

(Lecturer Assistant in Remote Sensing and GIS Laboratoy)

Email address: fatwa[at]m.tains.tohoku.ac.jp

Abstract. Information and communication technology have been growing rapidly during the last 2 decades The dot com bust just after the millennium resulted many opportunities for advance lecture ways, in this case for Remote Sensing and GIS class. With only single click we could find source or references for lecture materials. In field of Remote Sensing and GIS, recently become easier to find and download satellite imagery from official data provider website freely, but the aggravating circumstance is the expensive price for satellite imagery processing and GIS commercial software. This paper attempt to give solutions for this matter. At present we have many choices because of the presence of opensource software and online software tools. We can easily download from internet and use the software. Firstly, we have to make sure that we have a good internet connection. Secondly, we have to prepare spatial data set, in this case is Landsat ETM+ satellite imagery, we can freely download from http://glovis.usgs.gov , decide the area of interest of our study and store it to our work folder. Thirdly, launch our ILWIS 3.6 (after we download from http://52north.org , and installed it to our computer), import the data to ILWIS format and make RGB (Red-Green-Blue) combination of natural color. Now we are ready to distinguish land use land cover from the Landsat ETM+ satellite imagery, in this case we want to now the urban growth in time series period, so we have to download minimum 3 different acquisition time of Landsat ETM+ satellite imagery. Fourthly, we want to update the road network. Open your Google Earth ( http://earth.google.com )and zoom to our area of interest. Using add path tools at Google Earth (GE) toolbar, give name and start to digitize. After finish we will find our road network layer in the left side of GE. Right click this layer and choose copy. Fifthly, launch kml2shapefile from http://www.zonums.com/online/kml2shp.php, right click or simple just ctrl+v in the work window, export our data and store in our work folder. Lastly, open MapWindow (after we download from http://www.mapwindow.org/ and installed it to our computer). Load our time series satellite imagery and our road network. Make a layout map with cartography design and present it in pdf (we can download CutePDFWriter from http://www.filehippo.com/jp/download_cutepdf_writer/ )file or print out our map and present it as hardcopy map. This methods is the most simply method and freely to give lecture in satellite imagery processing and GIS based on online internet connection and opensource software. We can observe more rich function in ILWIS 3.6 and MapWindow for satellite imagery processing and others GIS work. The lack of this method is we should to make sure that we have fast and stable internet connection for download satellite imagery data and to install opensource software, if you choose online installation.

Keywords: Satellite imagery processing, Landsat ETM+, GIS, Internet, Opensource, ILWIS 3.6, MapWindow, Google Earth, kml2shapefile.

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Oil Palm Expansion at Riau Province, Indonesia

Survey Map for support my Master Course

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Is capital inflow respond to disaster?. A neoclassic analysis in in Indonesia during disaster period 2004-2009

F. Ramdani 1, *

1 Geo-Environment, Institute of Geography, Faculty of Science, Tohoku University, JAPAN –

ABSTRACT:

Indonesia is located in the ring of fire, which is mean earthquake, volcanic activity, tsunami due to plate tectonic activity become more dangerous than other regional in South East Asia. During 2004-2009, there are more than three big earthquakes and one big tsunami in this region. After all, during that period, national economic growth was decreased and increased. Population, provincial GDP’s, and personal income during the observed period also decreased and increased in local area.

As a developing country, Indonesia need to improve macroeconomic performance by capital inflows. This study attempt to examine is the capital inflow growth respond to disaster in four area. How macroeconomic policy implement after disaster maken in Indonesia, and how is the impact for every observed province, and also how is changed in population could change personal income and provincial GDP’s during the observed period. These area are, Nanggroe Aceh Darussalam (after the biggest tsunami in 2004), Yogyakarta (after earthquake 2006), West Java (after tsunami pangandaran 2006) and West Sumatera (after big earthquake 2009).

KEY WORDS: capital inflow, disaster, neoclassic analysis, macroeconomic, GDP, personal income.


Sub-Urban growth impact in the wetland environment. Study case: rawa danau nature reserve

(the 10th Anniversary International Multidisciplinary Scientific GeoConference S G E M  2 0 1 0, Bulgaria)

F. Ramdani 1, *

1 Geo-Environment, Institute of Geography, Faculty of Science, Tohoku University, JAPAN –

ABSTRACT:

Being located in mountain region, Rawa Danau Nature Reserve is the only one wetland area in the mountain region in Indonesia. which formed very important component of its biophysical and physical environment. With the decreasing control of the local government and private agencies over the years, and rapid urban sprawl of the city, many of the water bodies have been totally lost. This has been converted to wet rice field cultivation and also expansion of illegal logging. One of our greatest environmental challenges is to ensure an adequate supply and quality of water for human use while maintaining the integrity of natural ecosystems. Rawa Danau has become a main water supplier for the biggest steel industry in Indonesia for many years,  especially for Krakatau Steel Industry Area. This industry had make a reduction in the carrying capacity of lakes and water channels. The local government has not bothered to either implement the existing laws or pay attention to the suggestions of environmental challange  in this regard. Understanding sub-urban growth impact in the wetland environment  is essential to understanding environmental change. Water also links and integrates natural systems with human social systems. This paper presents evaluation and asses changes in Rawa Danau wetland environment to understanding of water dynamics and the impacts of human interventions and changing environmental conditions on them using remote sensing approach.

KEY WORDS: urban growth, water dynamic, wetland environment, remote sensing, nature reserve.


The advantages of SPOT5 for land use and urban mapping at scale 1:20.000. study case: Indragiri Hulu regency, Riau province

(the 4th International Conference “Earth from Space – the most Effective Solutions”, Russia)

F. Ramdani 1, *

1 Geo-environment, Institute of Geography, Faculty of Science, Tohoku University, JAPAN –

ABSTRACT:

Urban development is one of the key issues facing government today, especially for urban planning and development department. Monitoring the spread of urbanization concerns regions, groups of urban communities or even entire regency, and may sometimes span national borders. Regional and local development programs need geographic information to give decision-makers a broad picture that reaches across all sectors. Such programs have to ensure that land-use provisions are spatially coherent and take environmental issues fully into account. But collecting uniform and current geographic data for planning purposes is not always an easy task. Tools for tracking built-up areas, especially in urban zones, require map coverage of vast areas that is both accurate. Especially in this case study area, expanding of palm plantation area need more concern by local government.

KEY WORDS: SPOT5, Land use, Land cover, Urban mapping, Urban planning and development.


WEBGIS-LAND MANAGEMENT SYSTEM

(for MapAsia 2009 at Singapore and SEASC 2009 at Bali)

Fatwa Ramdani*

ZasukoInfo Company, Datuk Setia Maharaja Street, Blok A No.2 , Pekanbaru – 28282, Riau. Indonesia

e-mail: fatwa@zasuko.com

Tlp: +627617893206

Aris Winanto*

ZasukoInfo Company, Datuk Setia Maharaja Street, Blok A No.2 , Pekanbaru – 28282, Riau. Indonesia

e-mail: aris@zasuko.com

Tlp: +627617893206

Abstract

Land Management now needs more conceptual and manageable system. GIS as a tool could give best solution for this problem. In this paper we use three sections for land management system. First; Land Monitoring, second; Land Acquisition, and third; Land Dispute. Between all sections we gave two way alert system module for connecting each others.

This paper presents a framework for a collaborative WebGIS for Land Management. It focuses on the underlying concepts, theories and techniques for designing and implementing the conceptual framework. The framework, called WebGIS-Land Management. It consists of two main elements supporting the deliberative and analytic components of decision-making process. The deliberative part is based on the concept of argumentation maps. The analytic component consists of decision analysis methods. WebGIS Land Management uses the server-side architecture approach to Web-based GIS. It employs HTML, CSS and JavaScript on the client-side and a combination of PHP scripting language, MapServer and a MySQL database on the WebGIS-Land Management.

Keyword

WebGIS, Land Management, GIS, Monitoring, Acquisition, Dispute..


Research Proposal (for UKM)

Title:

Ecological Connectivity of Wildlife Protected Areas in Peninsular Malaysia for Conservation Prioritization

Author:

Fatwa Ramdani

Abstract

Movement is essential to wildlife survival, whether it be the day-to-day movements of individuals seeking food, shelter, or mates, dispersal of offspring to find new homes, or seasonal migration to find favorable conditions. Movement is essential for gene flow, for recolonizing unoccupied habitat after a local population goes extinct, and for species to shift their geographic range in response to global climate change. Disruption of these natural movement patterns by roads, development, or other impediments can alter these essential ecosystem functions and lead to losses of species and critical environmental services.

To identify potential routes between existing protected areas we conducted landscape permeability analyses for selected focal species for which appropriate data were available. Permeability analyses model the relative cost for a species to move between protected core habitat or population areas. We defined a least-cost corridor—or best potential route—for each species, and then combined these into a Least Cost Union. We then analyzed the size and configuration of suitable habitat patches within this Least Cost Union for all focal species to verify that the final Linkage Design would suit the live-in or move through habitat needs of all. Where the Least Cost Union omitted areas essential to the needs of a particular species, we expanded the Linkage Design to accommodate that species particular requirements, and ensure that no species was left behind. We also visited priority areas in the field to identify and evaluate barriers to wildlife movement. We also suggest restoration strategies to mitigate those barriers, with special emphasis on opportunities to reduce the adverse effects of transportation barriers.

The resultant linkage designs are broad to 1) buffer against edge effects; 2) provide live-in habitat for species needing multiple generations to achieve gene flow through the linkage; 3) ensure availability of key resources; 4) allow natural processes to operate, and 5) allow species and natural communities to respond to climatic changes. A crucial element of each linkage design is a set of recommendations to mitigate barriers, restore habitats, and manage the linkage.

Background

Globally, the number of protected areas has been increasing significantly over the last decade and there are now more than 100,000 protected sites worldwide covering about 12% of the Earth’s land surface, making them one of the earth’s most significant land uses. However, while the number and size of protected areas have been increasing, biological diversity loss continued unabated. The existing global system of protected areas is inadequate in several ways: (i) they are incomplete and do not cover all biomes and critical species; (ii) they are not fulfilling their biodiversity conservation objectives; (iii) participation of local communities in establishment and management of protected areas is inadequate; and (iv) protected areas in developing countries are poorly funded.

Ecological connectivity is maintaining a connected system of open space throughout an ecosystem. Not only is a contiguous line of open space maintained, but specific natural systems are kept intact. Ecological connectivity relies on maintaining ecotones, the linkages between different ecological regions. Ecotone is a habitat created by the juxtaposition of distinctly different habitats; an edge habitat; or an ecological zone or boundary where two or more ecosystems meet.

The theory of connectivity conservation focuses on interventions that protect, restore and reconnect fundamental ecosystem processes across landscapes. The approach recognises that ecosystems are functionally connected and that land and water use decisions will affect broader ecosystem function in different ways depending on the type and scale of intervention, its location in the landscape, its timing and the rate at which the ecosystem responds. A strategic connectivity conservation approach to inform land and water use decisions provides an opportunity to more effectively increase the capacity of a landscape to protect biodiversity and build resilience against current and future threats.

Increased connectivity can be achieved by building a network of biolink zones incorporating existing habitats or refuges, which are linked and buffered across different land tenures in ways that maintain and improve ecosystem processes. Parks and reserves have an important role in protecting biodiversity and ecosystem services, and can form the cores of these biolink zones. Improved protection and management of remnant patches on other public and private land will also play an important part.

Habitat fragmentation and climate change together form a major problem for natural environment. Fragmentation has occurred as wildlife habitats have been lost and isolated through land-use change and intensification. This can have serious impacts on biodiversity, as patches of habitat may become too small to support populations of species, and their movement within the landscape (for example for foraging, migration and dispersal) is interrupted. Climate change will rapidly make these effects worse, as species increasingly need to able to move across the countryside to stay within the climate they need, or risk extinction. To address these problems, we need new and large-scale approaches to protecting our biodiversity. We need to improve the ecological connectivity of the countryside, to reverse some effects of fragmentation so that species can move more naturally.

In this research we want to make resultant linkage ecological connectivity of wildlife protected areas in Peninsular Malaysia for conservation prioritization.

Research Area, Peninsular Malaysia
Research Area, Peninsular Malaysia

Method

Methods used for this thesis are:

  • Improve riparian vegetation as a priority, which will achieve the multiple benefits of improving river health and water quality while contributing to ecological connectivity
  • Identify and map areas where the natural resilience of ecosystems remains viable and concentrate regeneration efforts in these are
  • Work with local government on transport corridor management issues, including identifying opportunities for using roadsides and disused licensed roads to improve connectivity
  • Review urban development patterns as part of the four yearly review of local government Council Plans and Municipal Strategic Statements to identify the need for strategic planning responses to better integrate opportunities for species migration.

Aim and Objective

The aims of this research are:

  • To identify potential routes between existing protected areas we conducted landscape permeability analyses for selected focal species.
  • To make the design of the site or system appropriate to the values and maintain it.
  • To make the site or system effective in maintaining biodiversity, abating threats, and achieving other management objectives.

The main objective of this study is to make site for conservation prioritization in Peninsular Malaysia

References

Anonym, 2001. TECHNIQUES FOR PRESERVING ECOLOGICAL CONNECTIVITY. The North Corolina Division of Water Quality. Vol.3 Issue 3. Corolina

Anonym. 2008. Improving Ecological Connectivity. Department of Sustainability and Environment. Melbourne

Ervin, Jamison. 2003. Protected Area Assessments in Perspective. American Institute for Bioscience. Vol. 53 No.9

Dudley, Nigel. 2005, TOWARDS EFFECTIVE PROTECTED AREA SYSTEMS, An Action Guide to Implement the Convention on Biological Diversity Programme of Work on Protected Areas. Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity

Digital Elevation Model (DEM) Map, Peninsular Malaysia
Digital Elevation Model (DEM) Map, Peninsular Malaysia


Research Proposal (For ITC)

Title:

Modelling Urban Growth Using Markov Fuzzy Cellular Automata: A Case Study of Pekanbaru, Indonesia

Author:

Fatwa Ramdani

Background

Cellular automata (CA) are mathematical idealisations of physical systems based on the work of John von Neumann. These mathematical models are characterised by their spatially and temporally discrete nature. Von Neumann (1966) describes the properties common to all CA.

  1. There exists an infinite plane divided up into a lattice of discrete spatial sites.
  2. Each site contains a copy of the same finite automaton. The site and automaton together are known as a cell.
  3. Adjacent cells are known as neighbours. These might or might not include diagonal neighbours depending on the model. A cell and its neighbours are collectively known as a neighbourhood.
  4. At any one time a cell can only exist in one of a finite number of states.
  5. Cells may evolve to another state, but only at discrete time steps.
  6. The current state of a cell is uniquely defined as a function of the cell’s previous state and the states of its neighbours.

A Classic example of cellular automata is the “Game of Life” by John Conway (1999). This game involves populating a rectangular grid with “critter” and at each discrete time interval the population evolves to its next “generation”. The survival of particular critter from one generation to the next is a function of the number of live neighbors it has

This research centers on the application of CA is to modelling urban growth of Pekanbaru City, Indonesia. Using Markov Fuzzy Cellular Automata procedure.

Method

In Cellular Automata (CA) the system under study is divided into a set of cells with each cell interacting with all other cells belonging to predefined neighborhoods through a set of simple rules. In Fuzzy Logic, variables consist of partially overlapping qualitative fuzzy sets. Each fuzzy set is described by a linguistic variable familiar to its quality while quantitative (numerical) information is appointed to the proper fuzzy sets by the correspondent membership function. The knowledge base is represented as linguistic “IF…THEN” rules, connecting hypotheses to conclusions through a certainty factor. The most frequently used inference engines are divided into the stages of aggregation, implication and accumulation. Aggregation returns the fulfillment of the hypothesis for every rule individually. Implication combines aggregation’s result to the rule’s certainty factor (CF) resulting to the degree of fulfillment for each rule’s conclusion. Finally accumulation corresponds to compromising different individual conclusions into a final result. Fuzzy logic combined to CA provides a proper framework for expressing and mapping the urban growth dynamics.

In Markov an important component of Markov chains is the transition probability matrix P = [pij], traditionally obtained by two time series thematic maps. Thus, defining the second component in the framework of the proposed approach is based upon the transition probability matrix elements. At that the transition probability of a state ωi to a state ωj in an analyzed neighborhood depends not only on the probability pij but on the number of elements with the state ωj in the neighborhood. For each state in the analyzed neighborhood, coinciding with the elements of a current cellular automata, probability pij prob = njpij, is defined, j = 1,2,…, m, m – the number of states in the analyzed neighborhood, nj – the number of elements with state ωj in the neighborhood.

Data

Table of data that will use in this research.

No Data Format Datum/Projection Acquisition
1 Roads Vector WGS 1984 SUTM 48, NUTM 48 2006
2 Land Use Vector WGS 1984 SUTM 48, NUTM 48 2000,2004,2006
3 Land Cover Vector WGS 1984 SUTM 48, NUTM 48 2000,2004,2006
4 SPOT5 (multispectral resolution 10m) Imagery/raster WGS 1984 SUTM 48, NUTM 47 2006,2008
5 SPOT5 (panchromatic resolution 5m) Imagery/raster WGS 1984 SUTM 48, NUTM 47 2006,2008

Aim and Objectives

The aim of this research is contribute to the understanding of cellular automata and urban modeling for adding policy-making and planning of growth.

The main objective of this study is to model urban growth through an understanding of the preferences in allocation of residential developments.

The second main objective is to model scenarios of urban expansion based on different planning options.

Software and Hardware Requirements

This research need software IDRISI Andes Edition to run the markov fuzzy cellular automata model. ArcGIS for design the layout and OpenOffice to make final report. Hardware requirements needed are Desktop PC with 1 GB RAM, 100 GB HD, and 17″ LCD Monitor.

References

A. W. Burks, editor. The Theory of Self-Reproducing Automata. University of Illinois Press, 1966.

W-H. Steeb. The Nonlinear Workbook. World Scientific Publishing, 1999.

Final configuration for starting configuration (i) for (ii) 0, (iii) 100, (iv) 200, (v) 500 and (vi) 1000 edge-pair swaps deformations of the regular grid lattic. David O'Sullivan.  Centre for Advanced Spatial Analysis, University College London.
Example of CA: Final configuration for starting configuration (i) for (ii) 0, (iii) 100, (iv) 200, (v) 500 and (vi) 1000 edge-pair swaps deformations of the regular grid lattic. David O’Sullivan. Centre for Advanced Spatial Analysis, University College London

Transformations for More Easily Interpreted Than the Original Data

Fatwa Ramdani*

*Future Student at MIT SEAMEO BIOTROP IPB

Information Technology for Natural Resources Management

ABSTRACT

Transforms are image processing operations that change data to another data space, usually by applying a linear function. The goal of most transformations is to improve the presentation of information. Transformed images are often more easily interpreted than the original data.

Most of satellite image comprise multispectral and panchromatic bands. Panchromatic band usually has higher spatial resolution compare with multispectral ones. On the other hand, multispectral has higher spectral resolution (consist of several radiometric segment). In order to combine their advantage, we do transform (image fusion).

In this paper we do image transformation with four methods and three techniques. The methods area: HSV sharpening, color normalized (Brovey) sharpening, Gram-Schmidt spectral sharpening, and Principal Component spectral sharpening. The three methods are: nearest neighbor, bilinear and cubic convolution technique. These four methods and three techniques have build in ENVI software. This paper attempt to compare different method in image transforms (image fusion) for the best choice of resampling technique

Keywords: transformations, HSV sharpening, Color Normalized (Brovey) sharpening, Gram-Schmidt spectral sharpening, and Principal Component spectral sharpening

DATA & METHODOLOGI

Data that use in this paper are SPOT Panchromatic and Landsat satellite image the San Diego, California, year 1991. The SPOT Pan data provides greater spatial detail than the Landsat data, but has only one spectral band which is displayed in grayscale

Four methods are:

HSV Sharpening; Use HSV sharpening to transform an RGB image to HSV color space, replace the value band with the high-resolution image, automatically resample the hue and saturation bands to the high-resolution pixel size using a nearest neighbor, bilinear, or cubic convolution technique, and finally transform the image back to RGB color space. The output RGB images will have the pixel size of the input high-resolution data.

Color Normalized (Brovey) Sharpening; Use Color Normalized (Brovey) sharpening to apply a sharpening technique that uses a mathematical combination of the color image and high resolution data. Each band in the color image is multiplied by a ratio of the high resolution data divided by the sum of the color bands. The functions automatically resample the three color bands to the high-resolution pixel size using a nearest neighbor, bilinear or cubic convolution technique. The output RGB images will have the pixel size of the input high-resolution data

Gram-Schmidt Spectral Sharpening; Use Gram-Schmidt Spectral Sharpening to sharpen multispectral data using high spatial resolution data. First, a panchromatic band is simulated from the lower spatial resolution spectral bands. Second, a Gram-Schmidt transformation is performed on the simulated panchromatic band and the spectral bands, where the simulated panchromatic band is employed as the first band. Third, the high spatial resolution panchromatic band is swapped with the first Gram-Schmidt band. Finally, the inverse Gram-Schmidt transform is then applied to form the pan-sharpened spectral bands.

PC Spectral Sharpening; Use PC Spectral Sharpening to sharpen spectral image data with high spatial resolution data. A principal components transformation is performed on the multispectral data. The PC band 1 is replaced with the high resolution band, which is scaled to match the PC band 1 so no distortion of the spectral information occurs. Then, an inverse transform is performed. The multispectral data is automatically resampled to the high resolution pixel size using a nearest neighbor, bilinear or cubic convolution technique.

ANALYSIS

Image resolution alteration has impact to object detail appearance. Table 1.1 Show us the different between original data and data after transformation, with four methods and three techniques. The original data object could not interpreted clearly and easily, while in image after data fusion we can more easily interpreted than the original data. We can more easily interpreted detail road network, land use land cover, and block residential.

CONCLUSION

Table 2.1. The result after transformation show us the best choice of resampling technique

Transformations method

The best resampling technique

HSV Sharpening

Cubic Convolution technique

Color Normalized (Brovey) Sharpening

Bilinear technique

Gram-Schmidt Spectral Sharpening

Bilinear technique

PC Spectral Sharpening

Cubic Convolution technique

Visual analysis is important in image handling processing. Human visual has limitation, and it can be handled by transformations (image fusion) based on spectral characteristics and spatial resolution. Object detail interpretation more easily after image fusion than the original data. Data acquisition, geo-reference, and time recorded for every sensor must be noticed. Time recorded distinction could make complicate the analysis cause of land use land cover change in study area. Different sensor is needed for future research to know uncertainty of this research.

REFERENCES

Anonym., September 2003, ENVI Tutorials, Research System Inc (RSI).Sanjaya, Hartanto., 2003, Image Fusion: “Trik” Mengatasi Keterbatasan Citra, P3-TISDA BPPT bekerjasama dengan SEACORM – Badan Riset Kelautan dan Perikanan.

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9 thoughts on “Samples of my research proposal and paper”

  1. bang Fatwa, saya tertarik dengan pembahasan mengenai metode model celllular automata pada makalah di atas. Apakah model tsb hanya bisa diterapkan melalui software Idrisi saja? tiba2 saya ingin mencoba mendalami metode tsb untuk aplikasi penyebaran penyakit pada tanaman sawit. apakah mungkin bisa diterapkan? tks a/ pencerahannya.salam.

  2. Sampai sejauh ini untuk pemodelan dengan langkah yg relatif mudah, dan dgn harapan menghasilkan output yg optimal saya masih menggunakan Idrisi, untuk opensource ada ILWIS dgn SMCE (Spatial Multi-Criteri Evaluation) unfortunately fungsi ini hanya sampai pd langkah pertama saja, langkah selanjutnya (MCA-Markov Cellular Automata) harus menggunakan ILWIS-based script.

    Insyaallah bisa diterapkan untuk case study apapun, asal variable yg digunakan tepat dan sesuai dgn pendapat para ahli juga scientific literatures.

    Selamat mencoba.

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