Image Processing and Analysis

1. Image fusion (enhancement technique)

We will learn a simple method for fusion (merging/combining) high spatial resolution images with multi-spectral imagery. This fusion technique is combines the higher spatial resolution (15 m pixel size) of band8-Panchromatic with multi-spectral images (30 m) of Landsat 7 ETM+.

A. Firstly, enhance the band8 with a high pass filter. To do this, select the following menu items:

Image enhancement
Image enhancement

Operations-Image Processing-Filter,

Choose Filter type: Linear, Filter name: Edgesenh. Type output name : B8filter. and click define (not to show the result, only execute the algorithm)

B. Stretch the filtered image. To do this step, select the following menu items:

Operation-Image Processing-Stretch.

Select B8filter as input map. Choose Linear Stretching and give a Percentage of 1. Type output name: B8stretch.

C. Mask the image B8mask excluding water (darks pixels) from the input range. The output name will be B8mask.


Type the following formula on the command line of the main ILWIS window:
B8mask=iff((B8stretch>225)or(B8stretch<50),?,B8stretch) , click enter and select domain “Image”.

D. Increase the spatial resolution of ETM+ bands 7, 5 and 3.

To do this, select Operations-Image Processing-Resample. Specify as georeference: band8 (this assures that the other ETM+ bands are densified to the dimensions and pixel size of the band8-panchromatic).

Make sure that Georeference: band8

Select a Bilinear resampling algorithm. Call the output maps: B3, B5 and B7. Click the check box Show.

E. The enhanced B8mask can be merged by normalizing the TM bands by their sum and multiplying with B8mask

Calculate three new bands containing the merged images as follows:
R=(B7/(B3+B5+B7))*B8mask ,hit enter
G=(B5/(B3+B5+B7))*B8mask ,hit enter
B=(B3/(B3+B5+B7))*B8mask ,hit enter


F. Create a color composite of the red, green and blue channels, type output name: RGB_fusion, then compare this image with the color composite of the original TM bands. Make sure again that all images are assigned an “Image” domain, as the color composite operation currently only accepts the domain: Image.

Produce color composite


Interpret the differences between RGB fusion image and RGB original image



  1. Excuse me, I haven’t seen those topics about Image enhancement and the other image processing. Is there any error or you’ve just removed them away?

  2. I apologize for the late reply
    I just removed it, and will change with open source software step-by-step tutorial
    Thanks 😉

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