Rapid analysis of changing environmental conditions using satellite imagery; study area west coast of South Sulawesi

Rapid analysis of changing environment in Mandai and Maros. Left imagery is for year 2000, and right imagery is for year 2012


On the image above is clearly seen the changed in land use have an impact on the coastal environment, mangrove, and coral reef:

1. Rapidly growing industrial area in 12 years (2000-2012) period
2. Large-scale residential and agricultural development (Mandai and Maros) has replaced the buffer zone of the river and caused heavy sedimentation in downstream areas
3. Coral reef death (coral bleaching) and being endangered entirely, due to the silting process, development along the coastline, and the increasing of sea surface temperature (SST).

From the map below, shown that the closer to the coastline, the higher threat of damage to coral reef.

Coral reef at risk
Coral reef at risk (source: http://reefgis.reefbase.org/)

To verify my statements above, then you can do further research by collecting some of the following data:
1. Extent and type of land use change from 2000 to 2012
2. Average daily to monthly rainfall within 12 years
3. The amount of sediment transported from upperstream to downstream (daily-weekly-monthly), adjusted with the acquisition date of satellite imageries
4. Field Survey and the current condition of coral reef, needed further processing of satellite imagery for coral reef ecosystem analysis, you could use a set of methods; image corrections, included noise-reduction correction, atmospheric/radiometric correction, and images normalization. All images can then be classified with a some classifier technique (ex: Mahalanobis) and using statistics from the 2000 image to identify the three or four benthic classes. For SST, you can using MODIS images of the study area
5. Population growth since year 2000-2012



Proper sustainable-planning and strict-implementation of coastal development is highly necessary to reducing impacts on coastal environments, for examples:
1. Expanding buffer regions of coastal environments with strict-policy, and strict-law enforcement
2. Public participation in order to improve local monitoring and local management supported by local and national government
3. Sustainable geo-tourism, for effective conservation with national and international tourists and also toΒ  increasing local income from coastal environment



  1. Dear Fatwa,
    This is nice research, I am also doing similar research specially Makassar City area. We might can share some related datasets?
    Salam Remote Sensing dari Chiba

  2. Dear Pak Ilham,
    Thanks to drop for a while here πŸ˜‰
    Surely Pak, data apa yg bpk butuhkan? Please let me know
    Salam Eid Mubarrak dari Sendai Pak Ilham. Taqabbalallahu minna wa minkum

  3. Salam Eid Mubarak juga Mas Fatwa, Saya lagi mengevaluasi perubahan landcover Kota Makassar dari time series Landsat, dari tahun 1990-2010 tapi terkendala dengan image tahun tahun terakhir setelah SLC-Off karena imagenya yang bergaris. From your brief analysis above it seems you have a clear cloudless cover in 2012. Do you have the data downloaded or bought? If downloaded please kindly share the link but if bought then kindly share?

  4. Untuk data tahun 2012 saya lakukan algorithm “fill the gap” untuk mengisi garis hitam yg ada, tekniknya sederhana saja:
    1. Saya siapkan satu image (perekaman 31 March 2012) yg cloud cover free sbg “main image” yg akan diisi
    2. Menyiapkan 2 image (perekaman 12 Feb 2012 dan 5 Sep 2011) yg juga cloud free sbg “filler”
    3. Lalu “main image” diisi dgn “filler”

    1. tdk ada perubahan significant dari Sep 2011-March 2012, for another case juga begitu Pak, klo terlihat ada perubahan significant on land use kita sebisa mungkin gunakan data dengan waktu perekaman pada bulan-tahun yg sama, tapi memang u/ hasil optimal baiknya selalu gunakan data dgn waktu perekaman pada bulan-tahun yg sama untuk teknik ini dgn aplikasi LULC Analysis. 2. Tapi mohon maaf, u/ kota Makassar pd thn 2012 (TM7) tdpt sedikit awan didekat sungai (Mamajang dan Tamalate), namun dgn GIS technique hasil classification nanti bisa di manipulasi, krn daerah yg tertutup awan adalah urban.
    3. Untuk rekaman 21 July 2009 (TM5), insyaallah kota Makassar bebas awan 100%

    Please feel free to download my dataset (with files named “_filled” for year 2012 & “L5_” for year 2009) here

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